Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)

Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) includes formal, non-formal and informal learning.  It prepares young people with the knowledge and skills required in the world of work.  

According to the United Nations Organisation for Education, Science and Culture (Unesco), TVET has been called many names over the years. It’s been referred to as apprenticeship training, vocational education, technical education, technical-vocational education, occupational education, vocational education and training, and professional vocational education. Furthermore, It is known as career and technical education, workforce education, workplace education, and others.


TVET programmes in Malaysia are offered at certificate, diploma, and degree levels by seven ministries that include MOHE.

In TVET, young people have the opportunity to learn from basic to advanced levels across a wide range of institutional and work settings. 


Did you know?

There are over 1,000 TVET institutions in Malaysia of which 506 are public institutions.

  • According to MOHE’s Malaysia Education Blueprint (Higher Education), there will be an increase in demand for an additional 1.3 million TVET workers by 2020. This will be evident in the 12 National Key Economic Areas (NKEA) identified under the government’s Economic Transformation Programme (ETP).
  • To meet this demand, the government has increased the development expenditure given to public TVET institutions from RM 1.8 billion in 2010 to RM 2.1 billion in 2014.
  • Public institutions like polytechnics, community colleges, vocational colleges and other higher learning institutions can accommodate about 230,000 students.
  • In 2013, out of the 429,000 students who sat for the SPM examination, 321,000 students enrolled in higher education and training programmes, with more than 50 per cent enrolling at TVET institutions.
  • Facts and figures show and prove that TVET graduates have high employability (e.g. 83 per cent for Kolej Vokasional graduates). However, it is often perceived that TVET institutes are inferior to degree colleges.

The Unconventional Path: Why TVET is a Smart Choice for Academically Good Students

In the contemporary educational landscape, there’s a growing recognition of the value of vocational education in shaping the future workforce. TVET, an alternative to traditional academic routes, focuses on equipping students with practical skills and knowledge for specific trades or vocations.

1. Bridging the Skills Gap:

One of the key benefits of TVET is its ability to fill the skills gap in the job market. A skills gap is a mismatch between the skills employers need and those that job seekers possess. TVET addresses this by providing students with practical, relevant skills and training needed for specific careers.

2. Real-world Experience:

TVET offers a more practical, hands-on approach to learning. Instead of spending years learning theory, TVET students learn through doing, working on real-world projects, and gaining hands-on experience in their chosen field.

3. Wide Range of Career:

Opportunities: TVET can lead to a wide range of high-demand jobs in various industries. Careers in skilled trades like dress making, healthcare, IT, and computer professions often require technical and vocational education and training.

4. Cost-efficiency:

TVET institutions are known to be less expensive than attending a college or university. A four-year college degree can cost up to $127,000 on average, while trade school programs cost around $33,0002. Since vocational training programs can be completed in two years or less, the total cost is drastically reduced.

In conclusion, TVET provides a viable and valuable alternative to traditional degree programs. It offers practical skills, real-world experience, and opens up a wide range of career opportunities. For academically good students, choosing TVET could be a strategic move towards a successful career.

What is the solution?

TVET qualification provides a second chance to students to enter tertiary studies and obtain a bachelor's degree, master's or even a PhD.

If for some reason their SPM or equivalent academic results are not sufficient to enter a university. Most universities allow TVET pass-out students to join their programs and obtain degrees.

As a TVET graduate, you can either pursue technical (Bachelor of Technology with Malaysian Technical University Network).  Or management qualifications such as Professional Diploma or Executive Bachelor. 

If you are currently employed without any proper qualifications, you are encouraged to obtain skills. Skills recognised via the Pengiktirafan Pencapaian Terdahulu (PPT/RPEL) Recognition of Prior Achievement. By doing so you would have recognized paper qualifications.

Career Tips

If you’re planning to study TVET courses it is advisable to register at institutions that offer recognised certifications like Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia (SKM), which are also warmly welcomed in many foreign countries for employment.

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